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Using the Correct Parts of Speech 正確使用詞類

In English, words have different parts of speech. Common parts of speech are nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, pronouns and interjections. When you write, you must use the correct part of speech for each word. If you use them wrongly or make spelling mistakes, your teacher will spot them at once. You’ll lose marks in an examination if there are too many such mistakes. 在英語中,單詞有不同的詞類。常見的詞類有名詞、動詞、形容詞、副詞、連接詞、前置詞、代名詞和感嘆詞。寫作時,你必須為每個單詞使用正確的詞類。如果你錯誤地使用它們或犯了拼寫錯誤,你的老師會立即看到。如果這樣的錯誤太多,你就會在考試中失分。 Can you complete the following paragraph with the correct part of speech in each blank? 你能在每個空白處用正確的詞類完成下面的段落嗎? Scores of people are ____ (1. fear) dead after ____ (2. severity) weather that caused multiple tornadoes ____ (3. strike) late Friday night, ____ (4. tear) through several states in the middle of USA. The ____ (5. die) toll is likely to rise in Kentucky and the authorities have approved the state’s emergency ____ (6. declare) in order to provide federal funds for ____ (7. relieve) efforts. ‘This has been the most ____ (8. devastate) tornado event in our state’s history,’ Mr Beshear, the governor of Kentucky, said at a news ____ (9. confer) in Mayfield, where most of the tornado’s ____ (10. destroy) was centred. 週五深夜,惡劣的天氣導致多場龍捲風襲擊美國中部的幾個州,導致數十人死亡。肯塔基州的死亡人數可能會上升,當局已批准該州的緊急狀態聲明,以便為救災工作提供聯邦資金。肯塔基州州長貝希爾先生在梅菲爾德舉行的新聞發布會上說,這是我們州歷史上最具破壞性的龍捲風事件,龍捲風的大部分破壞都集中在那裡。

Answer and Analysis 答案與分析 Most words in English have different spellings for different parts of speech. For example, the word act has the following spellings: act (v/n), action (n), active (adj), actively (adv), activate (v), and activation (n). Other words like acts, actor, actress, acting, reactive, reaction, proactive, activist, etc. also derive from the word ‘act’. You must learn how to use the right part of speech in your sentences. 英語中大多數單詞對於不同的詞類都有不同的拼寫。例如,行為一詞具有以下拼寫:act (動詞/名詞) 、action (名詞)、active (形容詞)、actively (副詞)、activate (動詞) 和 activation (名詞)。 其他單詞諸如 acts、actor、actress、acting、reactive、reaction、proactive、activist 都源自 ‘act’。您必須學習如何在句子中使用正確的詞類。 1. feared 恐怕 The verb ‘fear’ is used in the passive voice here, so it is the past participle. ‘fear’ 在這裡用作被動語態,所以它是過去分詞。 • Active Voice 主動語態: The police fear that over 50 people have perished in the disaster. 警方恐怕有超過50人在這場災難中喪生。

• Passive Voice 被動語態: Over 50 people are feared to have perished in the disaster. 恐怕有 50 多人在這場災難中喪生。 2. severe 嚴重的, 嚴峻的 The adjective ‘severe’ should be used before a noun. 在名詞之前,應該用形容詞 ‘severe’。 Compare 比較: severe (adjective); severity (noun) • A severe storm struck the town last week. 一場暴風上週襲擊了該鎮。 • The murderer was punished with severity. 兇手受到了嚴厲的懲罰。 3. struck 打擊, 襲擊 The word ‘struck’ is the past tense and the past participle of ‘strike’. The problem is that many students do not know how to spell the word in an examination. ‘struck’ 一詞是 ‘strike’ 的過去式和過去分詞。問題是許多學生在考試中不知道如何拼寫這個詞。 • The village was struck by a massive earthquake in the middle of the night. 這個村莊在半夜發生了一場大地震。 • A stray bullet struck him in the leg. 一顆流彈擊中了他的腿。 4. tearing 襲擊, 撕開, 撕裂 ‘Tearing’ is the present participle here, showing the result of the previous action. ‘Tearing’ 在這裡是一個現在分詞,表示前一個動作的結果。(動詞變化: tear - tore - torn - tearing) • The zebra was dead, its leg being torn viciously. 斑馬已死,它的腿被狠狠地撕裂了。 • The storm savaged the city for several hours, tearing down many old buildings. 風暴猛烈襲擊這座城市幾個小時,摧毀了許多舊建築。 5. death 死, 死亡 ‘Die’ is a verb but ‘death’ is a noun. ‘die’ 是動詞, 而 ‘death’ 則是名詞。 • A couple died instantly when their house collapsed. 當他們的房子倒塌時,一對夫婦立即死亡。 • The rat was constricted to death by a snake. 老鼠被蛇勒死。 6. declaration 宣布, 聲明 ‘Declare’ is a verb but ‘declaration’ is a noun. ‘declare’ 是動詞, 而 ‘declaration’ 則是名詞。 • The mayor declared that the city was in a state of emergency. 市長宣布該市進入緊急狀態。 • The mayor signed the emergency declaration in wake of the disaster. 災難發生後,市長簽署了緊急狀態聲明。 7. relief 救災, 救濟, 減輕, 解除 The noun for ‘relieve’ is ‘relief’. Note that the noun ends in -f. ‘relieve’ 的名詞是 ‘relief ’ 。留意名詞以 -f 結尾。 • The government set up a relief fund to help those impacted by the tornado and the severe weather. 政府設立了一個救濟基金來幫助那些受龍捲風和惡劣天氣影響的人。 • I was relieved when I heard that he was unhurt when the building collapsed. 聽說房屋倒塌時他沒有受傷,我才鬆了口氣。 8. devastating 毀滅性的, 破壞性的 ‘Devastating’ is an adjective here, qualifying the noun ‘tornado’. Its noun is ‘devastation’. ‘Devastating 毀滅性’在這裡是一個形容詞,修飾名詞 ‘龍捲風’ 。它的名詞是 ‘devastation’。 • The tornado is believed to be the most devastating in the past hundred years. 這個龍捲風被認為是過去百年來最具破壞性的。 • Great devastation was caused by the tornado. 龍捲風造成了巨大的破壞。 9. conference 會議 ‘News conference’, or ‘press conference’, is an interview held for news reporters by a political figure or famous person. Its verb is ‘confer’. ‘記者招待會/新聞發布會’ 是政治人物或名人接受新聞記者的採訪。動詞是 ‘confer’, 意思是商討或授予。 • The conference room was silent, with everyone waiting for the president to speak. 會議室裡鴉雀無聲,所有人都在等總裁講話。 • The medal was conferred to him for his bravery. 勳章是因為他的勇敢而被授予的。 10. destruction 破壞 The noun for ‘destroy’ is ‘destruction’. ‘destroy’ 的名詞是 ‘destruction’。 • The church was destroyed during the war. 教堂在戰爭中被毀。 • The destruction caused by the tornado continued for over a hundred miles. 龍捲風造成的破壞持續了一百多英里。 It is only a small test and you may get most answers correct. In real life, you will come across thousands of words. Try to learn different parts of speech by heart and use them correctly in your writing and speaking. 這只是一個小測試,你可能會得到大部分正確 的答案。在現實生活中,你會遇到成千上萬的單詞。嘗試記住不同的詞類,並在寫作和口語中正確使用它們。


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